PLATFORM INFORMATION

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Phenotype Pharmaceuticals is an innovative biotechnology company focused on the discovery and development of companion diagnostics and targeted therapeutics for major life threatening diseases.

The completion of the human genome sequencing raised lots of hope in the health care industry to find better diagnostics and therapeutics. Since then and during the last 15 years billions of dollars were spent on trying to identify molecular markers for disease predisposition, early detection and disease management. However, except in rare cases, the mere identification of a given gene set and their mutations does not provide the expected clinical or biological significance for the management of disease processes and its progressions.

Unfortunately, the tremendous genetic variations and gene polymorphism found in the human genome makes it very difficult to capitalize on genome data. On the contrary, the discovery of proteins associated to specific pathways holds promising potential to shed light on disease development.

In addition, proteins are present in much higher copy numbers than nucleic acids, allowing an easier detection with the use of established and automated technologies.

In fact, the 26,000 genes of the human genome encode over one million protein variants that are expressed in different amounts, at different times, at different ratios, different cell localization and in different organs. All these differences in protein expression are governed by an extremely complex network that controls all normal and pathological processes in each organ of the human body. Therefore, to understand how and when disease process takes place, it is mandatory to know precisely when, how and how much of a given protein and their isoforms are made in each organ at any given time.

Unfortunately, the gigantic complexity of human proteome and its massive network of regulatory pathways together with the absence of adequate analytical technologies were major obstacles to decipher the proteome and to find out the relationship between the protein expression of a given gene-product and its clinical significance, and impact on disease onset and progression.

Phenotype has implemented a major immuno-based technology platform with the potential to monitor the entire proteome of any organ in any physiological condition, and correlate altered protein expression to clinical indication.

Phenotype platform technology relies on the immune system, the most sophisticated and exquisite tool of mother-nature, to make highly specific monoclonal antibodies, in high throughput manner, to virtually every protein expressed by the human body under all physiological and clinical conditions. Phenotype applies these tools, in parallel and simultaneously, to dozens of human proteomes from normal and pathological conditions in order to discover expressed protein based biomarkers that correlate with specific clinical conditions.

Through this parallel, simultaneous comparative process of the human proteome, Phenotype technology platform truly attributes a clinical significance to virtually every protein expressed by the human body and opens the holy grail of discovery of novel and reliable biomarkers for companion diagnostics.

Related Publications

Megan Scudellari. Try and try again. Nature, Vol. 516. Dec. 4th, 2014

Anne F. Schott, Charles M. Perou and Daniel F. Hayes. Genome medicine in cancer: What’s a name? Review. Cancer Research, 75 (10) May 15, 2015

John N Weinstein, Eric A Collisson, Gordon B Mills, Kenna R Mills Shaw, Brad A Ozenberger, Kyle Ellrott, Ilya Shmulevich, Chris Sander & Joshua M Stuart. The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network: Pan cancer analysis. Nature genetics. Vol. 45., N 10, 1113-1120. 2013

Branwen Morgan. The liver Labyrinth Navigating the path that connects fatty liver disease to cancer has proved tricky. Nature 516, Dec. 4th, 2014

Linda Chin, William Hahm, Gad Getz and Matthew Meyerson. Making sense of cancer genomics data. Genes and developments. 25: 534-555. 2011

Dr. Michael B. Yaffe. The Scientific Drunk and the Lamppost: Massive Sequencing Efforts in Cancer Discovery and Treatment. Sci. Signal. 6 (269), pe13. (2 April 2013) [DOI:10.1126/scisignal.2003684]

Authors: The cancer genome atlas network. Comprehensive molecular characterization of human colon and rectal cancer. Nature, Vol.487, 330- 337. July 19, 2012

Anna M. Varghese and Michael F. Burger. Advancing clinical oncology through genome biology and technology. Genome Biology., 15: 427, 2014

Yuan Yuan, Eliezer M. Van Allen, Larsson Amberg, Nikhill Wagle, et al. Assessing the clinical utility of cancer genomic and proteomics data across tumor types. Nature Biotechnology., Vol. 32, No 7. 644-654 July, 2014

Authors: Genome atlas network. Comprehensive molecular portraits of breast cancer. Nature, Vol. 490. 61-70., Oct. 12, 2012